Tag Archives: Africa

IPSF AfRO anti- skin bleaching campaign

By Geofrey Beigana

Lightening the skin to become fairer seems to be a common practice among dark skinned populations globally. According to the Question & Answer website, Quora; low self-esteem, racism, societal pressure are some of the reasons why people bleach their skin. Societal pressure is said to come from women and not men. Fair-skinned individuals in society tend to be regarded as better looking, beautiful or handsome.

Although there is proven evidence on dangers of skin bleaching, many people especially women in Africa still continues to use skin lightening products. Some of the dangers of skin bleaching includes; increased risk of skin cancer, acne, dermatitis, etc. The World Health Organisation estimates that nearly 77% of Nigerian women uses skin lightening products.

It’s against this backdrop that the IPSF African Regional Office (AfRO) through its Regional Projects Office, has started a public health campaign against skin bleaching. The campaign dab “Beauty Beyond Colour” aims to sensitise the public on the dangers of skin bleaching, how to identify bleaching chemicals and to have confidence in their skin colour. The campaign will be conducted on social media and will feature voices from AfRO members on skin bleaching.

Look out for these chemicals in cosmetic products such that you don’t use them unknowingly.

What is skin bleaching?

Skin bleaching is the intentional use of chemical substances to lighten the skin tone /complexion by reducing the amount of melanin present in the skin. Melanin produced by the cells in the skin known as melanocytes is the protein responsible for the dark/tanned complexion. The variation of skin colours among people is mostly due to variation of the content of melanin in the skin.  Generally, dark skinned people produce more melanin than white people. Melanin has multiple advantages in the skin including giving the skin its colour and protecting the skin from the damaging effect of sun rays.

The writer is the Regional Projects Officer of IPSF African Regional Office. rpo@afro.ipsf.org

 

Integration of orthodox and complementary medicine in Africa: 7 ways it can be done

By Denis Mumwi
TAPSA, Tanzania

Health delivery system is the coordination of institutions, resources and people involved in health care services provision to meet the health needs of the population. Transformation of health delivery systems in Africa aims at improving the delivery of services to Africans.

Integration of orthodox and complementary medicine in health delivery systems focuses on bringing changes and improving health delivery by making mainstream medicine and non mainstream medicine work together.

Orthodox medicine involves services provided by healthcare professionals who have attained educational qualifications as required by the curriculum, while complementary medicine involves health care practitioners with non curriculum qualifications.

The following are aspects with suggestions which can be targets through which integration of orthodox and complementary medicine can be established to bring transformation of health delivery systems in Africa as they are the main aspects that bring challenges;

1.Registration and licensing of health delivery practitioners

The legal system should be accessible and cooperative in the registration of traditional or complementary medicine practitioners as they face hindrances in accessing the legal bodies because they are less prioritized compared to orthodox medicine practitioners. Good registration system will avoid false health delivery experts and build trust in the society.

2. Environment for delivery of health services

Most of places for traditional healing are poorly located – they are difficult to reach as they can be caves or in the midst of huge forests giving a hard task to the sick. Traditional healers should be located in areas that can be easily reached by people in order to ease health delivery. Appropriate location is important for both orthodox and complementary medicine.

3. Diagnosis prior to treatment

Diagnosis of the problem before treatment will help in increasing the accuracy of treatment for both orthodox and complementary medicine. Complementary medicine healers should be assisted to know proper diagnostic procedures as many symptoms are similar for different diseases. This will improve the quality of health services.

4. Medicines, efficiency of treatment and cost effectiveness

There should be testing for safety of medicinal substances to ensure the right dosage at the right time for the right condition at affordable prices. Pollutants should be minimized especially in complementary medicine to enable quantity measuring and thus the efficiency of treatment is increased.

5. Information and equipment technology

Patient records should be well recorded so as to monitor the progress of treatment which is helpful for knowing its efficiency, controlling its side effects and assessing its compliance. Also, proper and sterilized equipment should be used to prevent spread of diseases. This should be an obligation for both orthodox and complementary medicine.

6.Education to successive generations

There should be proper teaching techniques to help in the passing of knowledge from one generation to another, especially for complementary medicine where traditional healers are reluctant to teach others. Complementary medicine should be included in the education curriculum and taught in classes as this will preserve the knowledge and also lead to innovations of treatments.

7. Medical researches

This will improve treatment as new discoveries rely on research. This should be encouraged especially for complementary medicine where research is not prioritized.

Conclusion

Complementary medicine provides a base for orthodox medicine as it gives preliminary clues to treatment. Hence the integration of orthodox and complementary medicine enhances the transformation of health delivery system in Africa.

dmumwi7@gmail.com

Transformation of health delivery systems in Africa with the integration of orthodox and complementary medicine

By Ekpoh Mfonobong
PANS, Nigeria

Africa has about 54 countries divided into regions: North Africa, Sahel, West Africa, Central Africa, East Africa and Southern Africa. The continent’s continuing struggle with communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB), parasitic diseases and poor primary and obstetric care has been a major factor in stalling the development and extension of healthcare services in African countries at even the most basic level (Janssen 2011). The healthcare delivery system has a role to play in Africa’s experience of disproportionate burden of poverty, disease, and death with appalling disparities within and between countries (Kaseje 2006).

Health is an integral part of life and its expedient that Africa’s healthcare system is re-assessed for viability. Orthodox medicine in its own sense, trains general medical practitioners to comprehensively treat the whole patient and to refer to specialists only when patients present ailments exceeding the knowledge and skills of the practitioner. Moreover, consumer-led demands for alternative therapies allow many people to seek care from a wide variety of traditions, each of which has its own anecdotal claims of success (Touyz 2012). Hence, integration of orthodox medicine with complementary medicine would be valuable.

Africa is a continent blessed with vast herbs whose medicinal value knowledge is handed down through generations, alongside the benefits of alternative medicine practices such as acupuncture, biofeedback etc. Previously, traditional medicine was presumed to be dangerous and produce side effects, which would be treated by orthodox medicine or lead to deterioration of the patient’s health. However, only decoctions, herbal products sourced from inappropriate centers, or products used in unidentified disease conditions and with insufficient advice on therapy regimen result in such scenarios (Asare 2016). Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) and different excipients are obtained from nature. Correcting the wrong notions of complementary medicine, and accepting it the way orthodox medicine has ‘won the heart’ of most practitioners, would make appropriate integration less challenging.

More products from nature are being produced and marketed, with claims to be effective in treatment of various diseases, eg Gingko biloba proven to benefit brain function; moringa seeds, leaves and extracts proven to contain phytochemicals beneficial to health. Also, acupuncture has been effective in stress management. For better healthcare systems, the Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) of orthodox medicine by various pharmaceutical companies are monitored timely. Similarly, for improved desired outcomes on patients’ quality of life, SOPs of herbal medicines should be regulated too, to prevent interference with the pharmacology of orthodox medicine. To spike interest in future healthcare professionals, alternative medicine should be taken more seriously in our institutions, with well-balanced tutoring on its basics and the benefits of its integration. Also, herbalists and other professionals of complementary medicine should become members of the healthcare team. Moreover, a balance in the basic knowledge of both medicines is necessary for these professionals.

These natural products and techniques in combination with orthodox medicine would speed up recovery, boost health and general immunity, increase appreciation of the blessings of nature and help reassess the cost of wellbeing in order to accommodate all strata of the economy. Also, standardized complementary healthcare would provide affordable healthcare for vulnerable groups as most times patients purchase medicines at high cost compared to their standard of living.

Health must be viewed as a central element of productivity rather than as an unproductive consumer of public budgets (Kaseje 2006). The ‘tides’ in healthcare demands of Africans are changing, our system is at a turning point, thus, all hands must be on deck as this course is an all-encompassing one.

mfonobongekpoh@gmail.com

References

  1. A Presentation on ‘Healthcare in Africa: Challenges, Opportunities and an Emerging Model for Improvement’ by Dan Kaseje, Great Lakes University of Kisumu, November 2006.
  2. An Article on ‘Herbal Medicine vs Orthodox Medicine, The Wrong Attitude’ by Bentil Asare, 2016.
  3. Louis ZG Touyz (2012). Alternative and Orthodox Medicine and the “ODD” Principle. Curr Oncol.; 19(02); 64-65
  4. The Future of Healthcare in Africa. A Report from the Economic Intelligence Unit sponsored by Janssen, 2011.

 

Integration of orthodox and complementary medicine: China has done it, Africa can do it too!

By Peris Thuo
KEPhSA, Kenya

Africa, My Motherland! She has evolved over the years from the exclusive use of traditional to embracing modern medicine. The world is watching as our continent strives to live up to its full potential in areas such as healthcare, education and infrastructure.

Health care delivery systems involve structured organizations of people, institutions and resources to ensure that the health needs of a target population are met. This remains to be an enormous challenge in Africa in areas such as leadership, governance, financing and accountability. The international finance corporation estimates that 25 to 30 billion US dollars are needed over the next decade to meet healthcare demand in Africa.

Complementary medicine refers to the health practice that approaches knowledge and beliefs incorporating plant, animal, mineral-based and spiritual therapy. These are either applied alone or in combination in diagnosis, disease prevention and maintenance of well being. We are now at a time where history is repeating itself and many patients are opting for complementary medicine. This is due to frustration for lack of cures for chronic diseases, affordability and accessibility. In addition, patients feel that they have more control over management of their treatment when using alternative treatment options and alternative medicine is viewed as safer than conventional medicine.

Effective incorporation of complementary medicine to health care systems would require proper policy and regulation. This is a big challenge in my country Kenya as it is estimated that nine in ten herbalists are fake. Most of these fake herbalists are based in our capital, Nairobi. They exploit vulnerable and gullible patients, mainly those suffering from chronic illness for commercial gain. This has contributed to the lack of faith in complementary medicine by the general public.

There is need for establishment of trust between health researchers and the genuine herbalists in order to successfully achieve this. Genuine herbalists are mainly based in the village. They are very skeptical about sharing their formulas with researchers for fear of exploitation. An ancestral aspect is also involved as most of these formulas have been passed from generation to generation. They fear that commercialization would not appease the ancestors. Trust has to be established between the two parties through establishment of proper policies to ensure that the genuine herbalist is protected.

Kenyatta National Teaching and Referral Hospital, Nairobi is the biggest of its kind in East and Central Africa. Research was conducted in the hospital to analyze the number of patients who use complementary medicine in addition to modern medicine. It was found that a number of inpatients would take their complementary medicine at night after the nurses had administered prescribed drugs and left the wards. Majority had not informed the physician that they were on these drugs. Reasons cited were: the physicians never asked, they would not understand, they would disapprove and the overall relationship between the physician and the patient would be affected.

Complementary medicine cannot be successfully incorporated if the physicians themselves have no faith in it. There is need for continuous medical education about the benefits of complementary medicine. Regulation of these medicines is crucial in ensuring that physicians can readily prescribe them to patients without hesitation.

Funding of complementary medicine research is mandatory. It is not possible to incorporate it to healthcare delivery systems unless all the necessary research and trials have been carried out. New delivery systems ought to be developed. A change in mindset is needed.

China has done it, Africa can do it too!

perrythuo@gmail.com

 

 

 

IPSF AfRO members talk about WHSS 2017

The World Healthcare Students Symposium (WHSS) is the world’s biggest student conference, a biennial global multidisciplinary  summit that brings together healthcare students and healthcare professionals under one roof to learn, discuss and draw inspiration from eminent speakers, policy makers and renowned global health leaders. Rwanda Pharmaceutical Students Association(RPSA), a member of IPSF AfRO is set to host the 7th WHSS this year from November 23-27, 2017 in Kigali Rwanda. Othniel Nimbabazi, 7th WHSS External Relations Vice Chairperson sought the views of our members on the upcoming symposium. 

Safari Justin – DRC

For us CEP-UOB/ D.R.Congo, hosting the WHSS in the AfRO region is a great opportunity (more than an opportunity) to show to all parts of the word how strong Africa is.  It will be a good moment for us to share with others our knowledge and our cultures (the best in the word). It will also be a moment for us to learn about how the health sciences evolve in other regions of the word and what we can do to reach a perfect healthcare system in Africa. For us it’s a golden opportunity. Viva Africa!

Abdulhafeez Mustapha – Nigeria

I have met with quite a number of Rwandans at different events. I am particularly confident in the Team because of my previous interactions with them. I expect to see a well-planned event from the team while having a wonderful experience during the symposium. Conferences like this brings a lot of opportunities especially networking among other professionals from all the world, this will set the ball rolling for inter-professional collaborations. 

Robin Valencia Arendse- South Africa

Having WHSS in our region (Africa) one can expect to learn a lot more about management of conditions which are generally only found in Africa; these include a greater insight of TB treatment or how we handle medicine policies in bringing medicines created elsewhere in the world to our continent. Lastly, if we look at healthcare professionals in general, the world believes they need to send doctors to our countries as if we need them, but they are the ones that need us in fact. Africa provides a platform of learning [things] which cannot be found in books. [We learn through] what we see and are exposed to everyday and by being exposed we have a better understanding of providing information on treatment plans of resistant strains of TB as well as balancing poverty with good healthcare.

Anyase Ronald Amaza- Uganda

It is a pleasure  to have the WHSS, the biggest health students gathering in the whole world to be organized in Africa, especially the region of East Africa. Being Ugandans, we congratulate our colleagues in Rwanda for taking the extreme mandate to host this benevolent activity. As East Africans, we believe this will give us a chance to show our competence in healthcare delivery, and through organizing of such noble events. The host is the Rwanda Pharmaceutical Students Association (RPSA) our sisters in the land of a thousand Hills. They represent the pharmacy fraternity, which makes us happier that the pharmacy profession is steadily growing with a lot of promise. We expect to see a plethora of guests from all over the World offering various health science courses to discuss how we can work together as a team of different experts in the medical field so as to foster achievement of health and well-being for all, a mandate fronted by WHO. I expect the best conference ever in the history of health science students’ symposia in the World.

Isabella ilikwell Lokurukam- Kenya

I personally think that the WHSS couldn’t have come to Africa, and especially East Africa, at a better time and under a better theme. I feel like we are that generation of young Africans in healthcare who can make an impact that will be felt for generations to come. I look forward to an inspirational and fruitful symposium in November!

Eric Konan- Ivory Coast

The World Healthcare Students’ Symposium (WHSS) is an event that brings together medicine, pharmacy and allied health sciences students in an international forum to generate discussion and understanding between the professions, develop skills and awareness of concepts in multidisciplinary working, and be advocates for a cooperative multidisciplinary approach to patient-centered care to optimize health outcomes.

Bakani Ncube- Zimbabwe

For me, I’m excited that the WHSS is coming to Sub Saharan Africa for the first time as well as that IPSF is hosting it too for the first time! Both these facts make me proud of being an African pharmacy student and I would like to see Africa shine and take center stage. As for my expectations, I expect a world class symposium that unites healthcare professionals and healthcare students from all over the world, interacting and uniting under one roof and discussing pressing global health issues-2 of which are close to me personally i.e the One Health concept and AMR. It should also be a time to make long lasting friendships that will endure the test of time

Joel Kibona- Tanzania

I feel proud for the WHSS to be in our region this year! This is a great opportunity for our members to participate and learn! More, they will have time to interact and connect with others and expand their scope of understanding the health field, that will enhance unity and cooperation toward searching for solutions in the field.

Alex Bayoh- Sierra Leone

The significance of hosting the WHSS in Africa can’t be overemphasized. The need for strategic healthcare reform that suits the region has been clearly indicated by recent health related tragedies such as Ebola and Cholera outbreaks and the increase rate of malnutrition among infants in the sub regions. The healthcare delivery system in Africa needs transformation from the already existing conventional approach to a modified multidisciplinary healthcare approach. As we fight to be innovative by introducing new techniques and technologies into the practice, we also need to include effective and safe use of orthodox and complementary medicine into the practice. The WHSS will be a platform to discuss, debate and find solutions to the health issues that affects our region and place them in order of priority based on their importance and urgency so that health policies that will be made  will have significant improvement on our region.

Editor’s note: Visit http://whss2017.org/ to learn more about the symposium.

 

 

 

End malaria for good: Here are the key things to know

By Beingana Geofrey

Today is World Malaria Day. The theme for this year is: End malaria for good. In this article, I present to you the key things to know about this epidemic.

What is Malaria?
Malaria is a life-threatening blood disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female mosquitoes named Anopheles. Once an infected mosquito bites a human and transmits the parasites, those parasites multiply in the host’s liver before infecting and destroying red blood cells.

Facts about Malaria
Nearly half of the world’s population is at risk of malaria. In 2015, there were roughly 212 million malaria cases and an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths. Increased prevention and control measures have led to a 29% reduction in malaria mortality rates globally since 2010. Sub-Saharan Africa continues to carry a disproportionately high share of the global malaria burden. In 2015, the region was home to 90% of malaria cases and 92% of malaria deaths.

In areas with high transmission of malaria, children under 5 are particularly susceptible to infection, illness and death; more than two thirds (70%) of all malaria deaths occur in this age group. Between 2010 and 2015, the under-5 malaria death rate fell by 29% globally. However malaria remains a major killer of children under five years old, taking the life of a child every two minutes.

Symptoms
Malaria is an acute febrile (showing symptoms of fever) illness. In a non-immune individual, symptoms appear 7 days or more (usually 10–15 days) after the infective mosquito bite. The first symptoms – fever, headache, chills and vomiting – may be mild and difficult to recognize as malaria. If not treated within 24 hours, P. falciparum (one of the species of the parasite that cause malaria in humans) malaria can progress to severe illness, often leading to death.

Children with severe malaria frequently develop one or more of the following symptoms: severe anaemia, respiratory distress in relation to metabolic acidosis (occurs when the body produces excessive quantities of acid), or cerebral malaria. In adults, multi-organ involvement is also frequent. In malaria endemic areas, people may develop partial immunity, allowing asymptomatic infections to occur.

Who is at risk?
Some population groups are at considerably higher risk of contracting malaria, and developing severe disease, than others. These include infants, children under 5 years of age, pregnant women and patients with HIV/AIDS, as well as non-immune migrants, mobile populations and travellers.

Prevention
Vector control is the main way to prevent and reduce malaria transmission. If coverage of vector control interventions within a specific area is high enough, then a measure of protection will be conferred across the community. World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends protection for all people at risk of malaria with effective malaria vector control through the following ways:

Indoor residual spraying (Photo: RTI/ B Stewart).

  • Sleeping under insecticide-treated mosquito nets
  • Indoor spraying with residual insecticides
  • Antimalarial drugs

In pregnancy, WHO recommends intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (commonly known as Fansidar), at each scheduled antenatal visit after the first trimester. Similarly, for infants living in high-transmission areas of Africa, 3 doses of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine are recommended, delivered alongside routine vaccinations. In 2012, WHO recommended Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention as an additional malaria prevention strategy for areas of the Sahel sub-Region of Africa.

  • Clearing bushes and any other possible breeding places like stagnant water is also recommendable.

Diagnosis and treatment
Early diagnosis and treatment of malaria reduces disease and prevents deaths. It also contributes to reducing malaria transmission.

If we all contribute to eradicating Malaria we shall achieve it. Have you played your role? Well this was mine.

Mr. Beingana is the Regional Projects Officer at IPSF African Regional Office.
rpo@afro.ipsf.org

Reference
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs094/en/
http://www.worldmalariaday.org/about/world-malaria-day
http://www.worldmalariaday.org/about/world-malaria-day
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs094/en/
https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Plasmodium_falciparum
http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/biology/parasites.html
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2271/

NAVIGATING THE PHARMACY PROFESSION: THE BEST SPECIALTIES THAT CAN IMPROVE PHARMACY PRACTICE IN AFRICA

By Johnson Wanjohi, Adeyemi Sylvester, Beingana Geofrey and Hirwa Brice

This article is aims at exploring various specialties of pharmacy and suggesting best practices that can improve pharmaceutical services in Africa.

Right from the days of apothecaries to our present time, the pharmacy profession has been humankind’s solution to pain and agony of sicknesses and diseases. A pharmacist is an expert on drug therapy and is best in optimizing the use of medications with the aim of improving patient outcome. The International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) and World Health Organization (WHO) developed the concept of “The seven-star pharmacist,” which stated that a well-rounded pharmacist should be a compassionate caregiver, decision maker, effective communicator, lifelong learner and a good manager. The pharmacist should also possess good leadership qualities and the ability to be a teacher and researcher. These diverse skills explain the reason why there are many specialties in pharmacy practice today.

pharmacy-profession1

Healthcare remains one of the biggest challenges in Africa. Access to healthcare has been on the rise in the recent past in Africa, and this increase in the provision of health services is attributed to the efforts of various countries in solving the problem. Pharmacists play an essential role in the delivery of healthcare in Africa and are considered to be on the frontline in the provision of healthcare. The role of pharmacists has evolved in most parts of the world, but the rate in Africa has been slow compared to rest of the world. The role of pharmacists in Africa has remained traditional mostly in dispensing and selling of drugs.  Specialization can enhance the rate of improving pharmacy practice in various fields in pharmacy that would have great impact.

The common specialties in this field in Africa mostly encompass clinical pharmacy. The practice of clinical pharmacy exhibits challenges brought up by the absence of most pharmacists in community pharmacy where pharmacy assistants who are less skilled than the pharmacists are left to run the pharmacies. The unequal distribution of pharmacies in rural regions is also a challenge that faces clinical pharmacy practice in the region. A study done by Marie Kassie (2016), suggest there is an increase of pharmaceutical industries in countries such as South Africa, Nigeria, Algeria, Kenya, and Ghana but a subtle number of companies offer innovative research and drug discovery.

One of the specialties that could help improve healthcare provision in the region is critical care pharmacy. In this field of study, the pharmacist acquires training on evaluating clinical information and provides pharmacologic and technologic intervention in critically ill patients. The pharmacist is also able to provide guidance in decision making where patients in very critical condition exhibit different pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics of non-critically ill patients. The critical care pharmacist can be a valuable addition to healthcare delivery owing to the fact that Africa lacks a sufficient number of such personnel.

 In addition, pharmacists can also play a key role as public health personnel where they can contribute to health education, promotion, prevention and also health policies in a local, international and global context by making effective use of their pharmaceutical care and analytical skills.

Oncology pharmacy is another specialty that would have a great impact in catapulting healthcare provision in the region. Cancer is now one the leading causes of death in Africa. One of the challenges experienced in the region is the lack of diagnosis and insufficient centers to provide treatment to the overwhelming number of cancer patients. An oncology pharmacist is equipped with immense knowledge in pharmacotherapeutic interventions that would help improve the outcomes in cancer patients. The oncology pharmacist is also able to provide guidance on how to manage intricacy and adverse effects of drug therapy in the management of cancer.

Industrial pharmacy is also a specialty that presents a huge need for personnel in Africa. An industrial pharmacist specializes in all manufacturing, marketing, and distribution processes of drugs. The pharmacist can employ the use of new processes and technology in the production of medicines. In addition to performing quality assurance of all manufacturing activities, the industrial pharmacist can also be involved in pharmacovigilance, waste management, and supply management. The specialty may include gaining knowledge in different fields such as engineering and economics.  

There are also various programs that offer specialization within the pharmaceutical industry where pharmacists gain knowledge on cutting edge research and innovation in drug discovery, development and regulation. Some of the specializations include pharmacogenomics, drug discovery and development, pharmaceutical modeling science, and regulatory science. The pharmacist is involved in pre-clinical and clinical studies that are essential for the creation of new drugs as well as improvement of existing medication. Africa exhibits untapped possibilities in drug discovery owing to a large number of undocumented, unregulated, and insufficient studies on traditional medicine. The specialty would help immediate research and innovation in drug discovery and development in the African continent.

Another key area is regulatory pharmacy, where pharmacists are saddled with the responsibility of ensuring compliance with ethics of pharmacy practice, standard pharmacy education, standard requirements for good manufacturing practice, and treatment guidelines.  There is also the need to support regulation through government policies to ensure that compliance is observed to safeguard all activities in the delivery of pharmaceutical services. Such policies are recommended and enforced by regulatory bodies in each country .

The present generation of pharmacists in Africa should consider the specialties mentioned above which would contribute in spearheading improvement of healthcare delivery in the region. Learning institutions should also take steps in introducing these specialties with the aim of providing current knowledge and training needed to solve the problems as well as fill the gaps in healthcare. An old African adage that states: “Learn from the person who knows the way.”  It is, therefore, expedient for us to make necessary adjustments to our curriculum and also collaborate with the developed countries where these specialties are being practiced in order to create opportunities for learning and paradigm shift.

The writers are members of Regional Projects Subcommittee of IPSF African Regional Office.

rpo@afro.ipsf.org

References

  1. bps. (n.d.). Board of Pharmacy specialties. Retrieved from http://www.bpsweb.org/
  2. Jamison, D. T., Makgoba, M. W., & Feachem, R. G. (2006). Disease and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
  3. Kassi, M. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/sites/default/files/forms/outreach/intro2pharm/global-practices/Pharmacy-in-Africa_Kassi.pdf