Tag Archives: Health

Integration of orthodox and complementary medicine in Africa: 7 ways it can be done

By Denis Mumwi
TAPSA, Tanzania

Health delivery system is the coordination of institutions, resources and people involved in health care services provision to meet the health needs of the population. Transformation of health delivery systems in Africa aims at improving the delivery of services to Africans.

Integration of orthodox and complementary medicine in health delivery systems focuses on bringing changes and improving health delivery by making mainstream medicine and non mainstream medicine work together.

Orthodox medicine involves services provided by healthcare professionals who have attained educational qualifications as required by the curriculum, while complementary medicine involves health care practitioners with non curriculum qualifications.

The following are aspects with suggestions which can be targets through which integration of orthodox and complementary medicine can be established to bring transformation of health delivery systems in Africa as they are the main aspects that bring challenges;

1.Registration and licensing of health delivery practitioners

The legal system should be accessible and cooperative in the registration of traditional or complementary medicine practitioners as they face hindrances in accessing the legal bodies because they are less prioritized compared to orthodox medicine practitioners. Good registration system will avoid false health delivery experts and build trust in the society.

2. Environment for delivery of health services

Most of places for traditional healing are poorly located – they are difficult to reach as they can be caves or in the midst of huge forests giving a hard task to the sick. Traditional healers should be located in areas that can be easily reached by people in order to ease health delivery. Appropriate location is important for both orthodox and complementary medicine.

3. Diagnosis prior to treatment

Diagnosis of the problem before treatment will help in increasing the accuracy of treatment for both orthodox and complementary medicine. Complementary medicine healers should be assisted to know proper diagnostic procedures as many symptoms are similar for different diseases. This will improve the quality of health services.

4. Medicines, efficiency of treatment and cost effectiveness

There should be testing for safety of medicinal substances to ensure the right dosage at the right time for the right condition at affordable prices. Pollutants should be minimized especially in complementary medicine to enable quantity measuring and thus the efficiency of treatment is increased.

5. Information and equipment technology

Patient records should be well recorded so as to monitor the progress of treatment which is helpful for knowing its efficiency, controlling its side effects and assessing its compliance. Also, proper and sterilized equipment should be used to prevent spread of diseases. This should be an obligation for both orthodox and complementary medicine.

6.Education to successive generations

There should be proper teaching techniques to help in the passing of knowledge from one generation to another, especially for complementary medicine where traditional healers are reluctant to teach others. Complementary medicine should be included in the education curriculum and taught in classes as this will preserve the knowledge and also lead to innovations of treatments.

7. Medical researches

This will improve treatment as new discoveries rely on research. This should be encouraged especially for complementary medicine where research is not prioritized.

Conclusion

Complementary medicine provides a base for orthodox medicine as it gives preliminary clues to treatment. Hence the integration of orthodox and complementary medicine enhances the transformation of health delivery system in Africa.

dmumwi7@gmail.com

Transformation of health delivery systems in Africa with the integration of orthodox and complementary medicine

By Ekpoh Mfonobong
PANS, Nigeria

Africa has about 54 countries divided into regions: North Africa, Sahel, West Africa, Central Africa, East Africa and Southern Africa. The continent’s continuing struggle with communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB), parasitic diseases and poor primary and obstetric care has been a major factor in stalling the development and extension of healthcare services in African countries at even the most basic level (Janssen 2011). The healthcare delivery system has a role to play in Africa’s experience of disproportionate burden of poverty, disease, and death with appalling disparities within and between countries (Kaseje 2006).

Health is an integral part of life and its expedient that Africa’s healthcare system is re-assessed for viability. Orthodox medicine in its own sense, trains general medical practitioners to comprehensively treat the whole patient and to refer to specialists only when patients present ailments exceeding the knowledge and skills of the practitioner. Moreover, consumer-led demands for alternative therapies allow many people to seek care from a wide variety of traditions, each of which has its own anecdotal claims of success (Touyz 2012). Hence, integration of orthodox medicine with complementary medicine would be valuable.

Africa is a continent blessed with vast herbs whose medicinal value knowledge is handed down through generations, alongside the benefits of alternative medicine practices such as acupuncture, biofeedback etc. Previously, traditional medicine was presumed to be dangerous and produce side effects, which would be treated by orthodox medicine or lead to deterioration of the patient’s health. However, only decoctions, herbal products sourced from inappropriate centers, or products used in unidentified disease conditions and with insufficient advice on therapy regimen result in such scenarios (Asare 2016). Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) and different excipients are obtained from nature. Correcting the wrong notions of complementary medicine, and accepting it the way orthodox medicine has ‘won the heart’ of most practitioners, would make appropriate integration less challenging.

More products from nature are being produced and marketed, with claims to be effective in treatment of various diseases, eg Gingko biloba proven to benefit brain function; moringa seeds, leaves and extracts proven to contain phytochemicals beneficial to health. Also, acupuncture has been effective in stress management. For better healthcare systems, the Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) of orthodox medicine by various pharmaceutical companies are monitored timely. Similarly, for improved desired outcomes on patients’ quality of life, SOPs of herbal medicines should be regulated too, to prevent interference with the pharmacology of orthodox medicine. To spike interest in future healthcare professionals, alternative medicine should be taken more seriously in our institutions, with well-balanced tutoring on its basics and the benefits of its integration. Also, herbalists and other professionals of complementary medicine should become members of the healthcare team. Moreover, a balance in the basic knowledge of both medicines is necessary for these professionals.

These natural products and techniques in combination with orthodox medicine would speed up recovery, boost health and general immunity, increase appreciation of the blessings of nature and help reassess the cost of wellbeing in order to accommodate all strata of the economy. Also, standardized complementary healthcare would provide affordable healthcare for vulnerable groups as most times patients purchase medicines at high cost compared to their standard of living.

Health must be viewed as a central element of productivity rather than as an unproductive consumer of public budgets (Kaseje 2006). The ‘tides’ in healthcare demands of Africans are changing, our system is at a turning point, thus, all hands must be on deck as this course is an all-encompassing one.

mfonobongekpoh@gmail.com

References

  1. A Presentation on ‘Healthcare in Africa: Challenges, Opportunities and an Emerging Model for Improvement’ by Dan Kaseje, Great Lakes University of Kisumu, November 2006.
  2. An Article on ‘Herbal Medicine vs Orthodox Medicine, The Wrong Attitude’ by Bentil Asare, 2016.
  3. Louis ZG Touyz (2012). Alternative and Orthodox Medicine and the “ODD” Principle. Curr Oncol.; 19(02); 64-65
  4. The Future of Healthcare in Africa. A Report from the Economic Intelligence Unit sponsored by Janssen, 2011.

 

Redefining the roles of pharmacists

By Fabrice Humura

Pharmacists practice in nearly all areas and specialties in healthcare, sometimes behind the scenes and obviously not to the public eye arena, as the medication medicines experts on the healthcare team. They are necessary in all facets of healthcare.  

A Pharmacist as defined by World Health Organization, is a health care professional licensed to prepare, compound, and dispense drugs upon written order known as a prescription. A pharmacist cooperates, consults with, and advises the licensed practitioner concerning drugs.

From this sole definition, a number of popular misconceptions about pharmacy as a profession could be disapproved. The main concern that a pharmacist’ s role is limited to typically picking the tablets off the shelf, counting them out and handing them over does not match with the aforementioned roles streamlined in the definition of WHO.

The role of a pharmacist starts right from the manufacturing of medications; a lot about this is mostly experienced in developed countries which have drug industry. The knowledge of a pharmacist is reliable in preparation of medication to ensure the right ingredients are used in compounding of medicines availed in all forms ranging from solids to liquids to gaseous.  

As medication specialist, pharmacists crucial responsibility is displayed in the healthcare team through the medicines preparations, manufacturing and information they make available.  Pharmacists educate and advise the physicians and other health professionals on medication therapy. They ensure no interaction amid prescribed drugs which could be detrimental to patients.  

A long hectic day full of anticipated and many unanticipated scenarios can pose a physician or any other healthcare professional to prescribe a wrong dose or incorrect medication relatively to a diagnosed infection.  In such cases, the ultimate role of pharmacist becomes evidently recognized as the prescriptions get scrutinized and the pharmacist intervene in advising the healthcare team on the right treatment in conjunction to avoiding the medication errors as well as irrational medicine usage. All these are done out of patient watch and they could not realize the important role of the pharmacist in their recovery. With this concerns therefore, the healthcare team, which inevitably uses medications, must admit the importance of a pharmacist.

As the world is at its highest pace in development, enormous diseases result from this progress due to industrialization, people’s life style to name just a few. Among those diseases include non communicable diseases such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases notoriously known to be amongst deadly diseases.

Pharmacists don’t detach from providing information and advice on management of those non communicable diseases and assistance to patients living with them. Moreover, pharmacists are not impeded to screen for blood glucose level, blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference and other health status values which can predetermine the early developmental stage of non communicable diseases.

Succinctly, a pharmacist by the perception of many is not solely the person who typically takes a request for medicines, evaluates the authenticity of the prescription and dispenses the medication as you pay, but a pharmacist is the first and foremost a patient centered healthcare professional ready to explain to people why they take their medications, what are they for, the names and strength of the medication and expected outcomes while taking medication.

Mr. Fabrice is a Pharmacy Student at University of Rwanda. College of Medicine and Health sciences. Twitter: @fhumura

 

IPSF AfRO members talk about WHSS 2017

The World Healthcare Students Symposium (WHSS) is the world’s biggest student conference, a biennial global multidisciplinary  summit that brings together healthcare students and healthcare professionals under one roof to learn, discuss and draw inspiration from eminent speakers, policy makers and renowned global health leaders. Rwanda Pharmaceutical Students Association(RPSA), a member of IPSF AfRO is set to host the 7th WHSS this year from November 23-27, 2017 in Kigali Rwanda. Othniel Nimbabazi, 7th WHSS External Relations Vice Chairperson sought the views of our members on the upcoming symposium. 

Safari Justin – DRC

For us CEP-UOB/ D.R.Congo, hosting the WHSS in the AfRO region is a great opportunity (more than an opportunity) to show to all parts of the word how strong Africa is.  It will be a good moment for us to share with others our knowledge and our cultures (the best in the word). It will also be a moment for us to learn about how the health sciences evolve in other regions of the word and what we can do to reach a perfect healthcare system in Africa. For us it’s a golden opportunity. Viva Africa!

Abdulhafeez Mustapha – Nigeria

I have met with quite a number of Rwandans at different events. I am particularly confident in the Team because of my previous interactions with them. I expect to see a well-planned event from the team while having a wonderful experience during the symposium. Conferences like this brings a lot of opportunities especially networking among other professionals from all the world, this will set the ball rolling for inter-professional collaborations. 

Robin Valencia Arendse- South Africa

Having WHSS in our region (Africa) one can expect to learn a lot more about management of conditions which are generally only found in Africa; these include a greater insight of TB treatment or how we handle medicine policies in bringing medicines created elsewhere in the world to our continent. Lastly, if we look at healthcare professionals in general, the world believes they need to send doctors to our countries as if we need them, but they are the ones that need us in fact. Africa provides a platform of learning [things] which cannot be found in books. [We learn through] what we see and are exposed to everyday and by being exposed we have a better understanding of providing information on treatment plans of resistant strains of TB as well as balancing poverty with good healthcare.

Anyase Ronald Amaza- Uganda

It is a pleasure  to have the WHSS, the biggest health students gathering in the whole world to be organized in Africa, especially the region of East Africa. Being Ugandans, we congratulate our colleagues in Rwanda for taking the extreme mandate to host this benevolent activity. As East Africans, we believe this will give us a chance to show our competence in healthcare delivery, and through organizing of such noble events. The host is the Rwanda Pharmaceutical Students Association (RPSA) our sisters in the land of a thousand Hills. They represent the pharmacy fraternity, which makes us happier that the pharmacy profession is steadily growing with a lot of promise. We expect to see a plethora of guests from all over the World offering various health science courses to discuss how we can work together as a team of different experts in the medical field so as to foster achievement of health and well-being for all, a mandate fronted by WHO. I expect the best conference ever in the history of health science students’ symposia in the World.

Isabella ilikwell Lokurukam- Kenya

I personally think that the WHSS couldn’t have come to Africa, and especially East Africa, at a better time and under a better theme. I feel like we are that generation of young Africans in healthcare who can make an impact that will be felt for generations to come. I look forward to an inspirational and fruitful symposium in November!

Eric Konan- Ivory Coast

The World Healthcare Students’ Symposium (WHSS) is an event that brings together medicine, pharmacy and allied health sciences students in an international forum to generate discussion and understanding between the professions, develop skills and awareness of concepts in multidisciplinary working, and be advocates for a cooperative multidisciplinary approach to patient-centered care to optimize health outcomes.

Bakani Ncube- Zimbabwe

For me, I’m excited that the WHSS is coming to Sub Saharan Africa for the first time as well as that IPSF is hosting it too for the first time! Both these facts make me proud of being an African pharmacy student and I would like to see Africa shine and take center stage. As for my expectations, I expect a world class symposium that unites healthcare professionals and healthcare students from all over the world, interacting and uniting under one roof and discussing pressing global health issues-2 of which are close to me personally i.e the One Health concept and AMR. It should also be a time to make long lasting friendships that will endure the test of time

Joel Kibona- Tanzania

I feel proud for the WHSS to be in our region this year! This is a great opportunity for our members to participate and learn! More, they will have time to interact and connect with others and expand their scope of understanding the health field, that will enhance unity and cooperation toward searching for solutions in the field.

Alex Bayoh- Sierra Leone

The significance of hosting the WHSS in Africa can’t be overemphasized. The need for strategic healthcare reform that suits the region has been clearly indicated by recent health related tragedies such as Ebola and Cholera outbreaks and the increase rate of malnutrition among infants in the sub regions. The healthcare delivery system in Africa needs transformation from the already existing conventional approach to a modified multidisciplinary healthcare approach. As we fight to be innovative by introducing new techniques and technologies into the practice, we also need to include effective and safe use of orthodox and complementary medicine into the practice. The WHSS will be a platform to discuss, debate and find solutions to the health issues that affects our region and place them in order of priority based on their importance and urgency so that health policies that will be made  will have significant improvement on our region.

Editor’s note: Visit http://whss2017.org/ to learn more about the symposium.

 

 

 

“WHSS 2017 will be the biggest conference of its kind,” Janvier Kabogo, Chairperson 7th WHSS

The World Healthcare Students Symposium (WHSS) is the world’s biggest student conference, a biennial global multidisciplinary  summit that brings together healthcare students and healthcare professionals under one roof to learn, discuss and draw inspiration from eminent speakers, policy makers and renowned global health leaders. Rwanda Pharmaceutical Students Association(RPSA), a member of IPSF AfRO is set to host the 7th WHSS this year from November 23-27, 2017 in Kigali Rwanda. Our Regional Media and Publications Officer, Kennedy Odokonyero, had a chat with Janvier Kabogo, Chairperson of 7th WHSS. Here’s the excerpt:

Mr. Janvier Kabogo, Chairperson of 7th WHSS.

How’s the preparation for the WHSS going? Is everything going as planned? How are sponsors and students responding?                        

Well, Preparations are now on track, everything seems to be going the way it was /is planned.

Because of the idea of WHSS International Campus Ambassadors (ICAs) you can easily see that healthcare students across the World are excited about coming to Kigali in November for WHSS.

FYI WHSS is being organized under high patronage of the Vice Chancellor of the University of Rwanda Prof. Philip Cotton and endorsed by Rwanda Development Board (RDB). This gives the event more relevance and credibility hence attract partners and sponsors to come on board.

So far we have Ecobank- Rwanda as our only banking partner, Global Health Focus (GHF) and Global Engagement Institute (GEI) as our technical partners on the scientific aspect of the conference.                        

Great. Good work so far by your team. What’s the theme for WHSS 2017 and why did you choose that particular theme?                        

Thank you, WHSS 2017’s theme is “Towards the SDGs Agenda 2030: The role of a multidisciplinary approach in Healthcare”

Why?

Because through this platform we intend to create ground for discussions and understanding about how the need of multidisciplinary collaboration among healthcare students and professionals is paramount in achieving the SDGS.

Furthermore it will be an opportunity to inspire future global health leaders to take actions to change the World.                        

Why should every health science student be in Kigali comes November for the WHSS? To put it simply, how will the symposium benefit its participants?                        

I would summarize this in 3 simple points:

  1. Unlike other conferences that only focuses on field, WHSS provides a unique opportunity to meet and network with over 2000 expected delegates from different health fields Worldwide  that will be the biggest conference of its kind. We also expect to bring prominent speakers who will be sharing insights and their stories during plenaries, Panel discussion and Workshops , Quite a huge global gathering!
  2. Rwanda is one of the fastest [growing] economies in Africa, with clean city and lovely people, you’ve got to come and experience an exquisite hospitality of Rwandan people, Plus many beautiful touristic places, its Volcanoes National Park, Akagera National Park, the home of famous gorillas and many more.
  3. FUN, WHSS 2017 will not only feature scientific programs and boring lectures , delegates will be given time to explore the culture of Rwanda through social events and explore by themselves Kigali during nights , those who want clubbing, social activities and making fun , you will have ample time for that…

Please don’t miss, #WHSSKigali17, come November!                        

Imagine a student is reading this interview from South Africa and would like to be a part of WHSS. What should he do? Where can he register from? Where can he get more information?                        

That is the most interesting question.

Beside our social media (Usually Twitter and Facebook) which are very active, you can visit our website www.whss2017.org for more information and online registration. After registration, you receive an automatic email containing payment information and procedures.

Talking about payment, we have two packages: Flexi Package without accommodation (100$) and Novo Package with accommodation (280$) you choose whatever affordable to you.

If you plan to come to Kigali before the conference kindly visit us and meet a dedicated organizing team at our permanent Secretariat Offices, Ecobank HQ Building, 8th Floor Kigali-Rwanda.                                            

Amazing. For students who might be having financial difficulties, is there any sponsorship or grant you are offering?                        

Huuum! Well, the team is working tirelessly to raise more funds, hopefully if we get many sponsors on board we shall definitely be able to provide scholarships, but that is something we don’t have full control over, it will depend.                        

However we encourage students to request for support letters and recommendation and do their own fundraising through crowdfunding and approaching different companies, institutions/Organizations.               

Can you explain what crowdsourcing is?                        

Crowdsourcing is one of online ways of fundraising whereby you elaborate clearly the object of your project that needs fund (be it a project, or an impactful/important trip) and you put it on website or social and get people willingly support you financially using their Visa Cards.                       

I am amazed by how your team is organising the symposium. The social media publicity and branding is amazing. The team looks so vibrant and motivated. What’s the secret to RPSA’s great skills in organising events?                        

Thank you so much for your motivation. Since when we joined RPSA in 2014 with my peers; Israel, Jeff ,Mandela amongst others, we have been wanting to learn, try new things, give ourselves challenges and aim high and I think , commitment ,determination and teamwork were at the heart of everything , be it success or setbacks.                        

Credits go to the amazing organizing team of this WHSS, Joint Working Group and generous support from the host association RPSA, Rwanda.        

7th WHSS Organizing Team.

I highly recommend that after the symposium through IPSF, you organise a training on event organisation for student associations. You have a lot of experience and skills to share with the world.                        

It would be a pleasure Ken! In fact, recently I was having a discussion with one of my closest colleague about developing a guide, kind of a tool that can give insights and guidance to freshmen on how to be actively involved in student led organizations, how can someone make an impact on a student level and such brilliant idea a on how to organize successful small and big events. And I think we shall co-work with you Ken! Will you be interested?      

I am definitely interested.            

Way to go.👌🏿                                                      

Thank you so much, I am so humbled! Thanks to IPSF for providing such platforms.                        

Any last words you have for health science students across Africa?                        

My wish is to see all healthcare students (be it Pharmacy, Medical, Nursing Dental, Veterinary and other allied health Sciences Students) convene to Rwanda for this cause (WHSS 2017). I would therefore like to welcome you all to Rwanda on behalf of the Organizing Committee, Patron of the conference, Joint Working Group and Our partners.  Welcome to Rwanda, Welcome to WHSS 2017, November 23-27, 2017

We look forward to seeing you all!                        

Thank you so much Janvier for making time to talk to us. We wish you all the very best in the preparations for the WHSS. We hope to be with you in November.                        

Thank you so much IPSF AfRO especially you Ken for the opportunity to feature in your publications. Let keep this journey interesting as it is now, I know with this enthusiasm and commitment, our future and the one of the Pharmacy is with no doubt bright.

By the way, let me take this opportunity to openly appreciate the good Job you guys in AfRO you are doing. You are inspiration to the next generations of pharmacists and global health leaders across the continent and the World at large.                        

😊😊😊 Awww thanks Janvier.                        

ANTIBIOTIC DEVELOPMENT AND GLOBAL INTERVENTION IN COMBATING THE EMERGENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

By Adeyemi Sylvester

INTRODUCTION

Antibiotics were the wonder drugs of the 20th century because of their  ability to kill and inhibit bacterial growth. In the pre-antibiotic era, the treatment of infectious diseases in human and animals was almost impossible. Besides the use of herbal medicines, there was no way out of the death sentence. That was until 1928, which  marked the beginning of  the antibiotic era when Sir Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin from the mold penicillium. After this breakthrough in medicine, came the emergence of antibiotics.

Resistance to antibiotics could either be natural due to inherent characteristics or acquired when  bacteria undergo evolutionary changes that transform their cells. These changes that lead to bacterial resistance to antibiotics are caused by both bacterial and human factors.

CAUSES OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

Primary causes of antibiotic resistance include wrong dosage, inappropriate prescription, inaccurate regimen, mechanical ventilation, multiple underlying diseases, poor hand hygiene.

In animals, antibiotics are used at subtherapeutic doses to promote growth. At subtherapeutic doses, bacterial population develops resistant strains. In research studies resistant bacteria can be transmitted from animals to humans in three ways: by consuming animal products (milk, etc.) from close or direct contact with animals or other humans, or through the environment. In the first pathway, food preservation methods can help eliminate, decrease, or prevent the growth of bacteria in some food classes.

ROLE OF PHARMA SECTOR IN ANTIBIOTIC DEVELOPMENT

The pharma sector undoubtedly plays a vital role in developing newer medicines as resistance emerge. Since 1945, newer antibiotic were being discovered to compete with the evolving bacterial population. According to an article published in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases in January 2009, only 5 of the biggest pharma companies –GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, AstraZeneca, Merck and Pfizer still had antibacterial discovery programmes in 2008. This is because of the commercial impact it has on the companies. The return on investment is poor and treatment of bacterial infection is usually short course regimen so patronage begins to reduce as soon as the infection is cured. That’s why companies have stopped developing antibiotics.

However, the launch of every antibiotic has been and will be followed by resistance in the targeted bacteria. Therefore, there is a constant need to develop new agents to keep up with the acquisition of resistance among pathogenic bacteria.

As a way to encourage drug-development, private-public partnership should be embraced to curtail financial burden of obtaining newer antibiotics.

sylvester-blog

GLOBAL ACTION PLAN AGAINST ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

There have been increasing public calls for global collective action to address the threat. In 2014 WHO released preventive strategies to tackle resistance

The public can help tackle resistance by:

  • Using antibiotics only when prescribed by a health professional
  • Completing the full prescription, even if they feel better
  • Never sharing antibiotics with others or using leftover prescriptions

Health workers, including pharmacists, can help tackle the resistance issues by:

  • Enhancing infection prevention and control
  • Only prescribing and dispensing antibiotics when they are truly needed
  • Prescribing and dispensing the right antibiotic(s) to treat the illness

Policymakers and industries can help tackle the resistance by:

  • Strengthening resistance tracking and laboratory capacity
  • Regulating and promoting appropriate use of medicines
  • Fostering innovation and research and development of new tools
  • Promoting cooperation and information sharing among all stakeholders

On March 27, 2015, the White House released a comprehensive plan to address the increasing need for agencies to combat the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

The Action Plan was developed around five goals with focus on strengthening health care, public health, veterinary medicine, agriculture, food safety and research, and manufacturing. These goals, as listed by the White House, are as follows:

  • Slow down the emergence of resistant bacteria and prevent the spread of resistant infections
  • Strengthen national One-Health surveillance efforts to combat resistance
  • Advanced development and use of rapid and innovative diagnostic tests for the identification and characterization of resistant bacteria
  • Accelerate basic and applied research and development for new antibiotics, other therapeutics, and vaccines
  • Improve international collaboration and capacities for antibiotic resistance prevention, surveillance, control and antibiotic research and development

The following are goals set to meet by 2020.

In 2015, WHO started the World Antibiotic Awareness week from 16–22 November to improve global awareness, promote rational use, and prevent further instances of resistance.

On 22nd September 2016, at the UN Meeting, collaboration between approximately 70 heads of state and ministers of health and foreign affairs demonstrated overwhelming political support to combat AMR. After the meeting, UN  decided to focus on rectifying the startling level of under-investment in AMR-related research; and a major new commitment by 13 of the world’s largest pharmaceutical companies, including giants of the generics industry, to take concrete actions to reduce the development and spread of drug resistance.

Mr. Sylvester a recent pharmacy graduate of Igbinedion University Okada, Nigeria.

adeyemisylvester1@gmail.com

REFERENCES

  1.  Pechère JC (September 2001). “Patients’ interviews and misuse of antibiotics”. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33 Suppl 3: S170–3. 
  2.  Arnold SR, Straus SE (2005). Arnold SR, ed. “Interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing practices in ambulatory care”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD003539. 
  3.  Antibiotic Resistance – Linking Human And Animal Health: Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach Workshop Summary. Wegener, Henrik C. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2012
  4. Todar’s online textbook of bacteriology by Kenneth Todar phD
  5. Race against time to develop new antibiotics: Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2011,89:88-89
  6. The bacterial challenge:time to react  A call to narrow the gap between multidrug-resistant bacteria in the EU and the development of new antibacterial agents
  7.  “FACT SHEET: Obama Administration Releases National Action Plan to Combat Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria”. whitehouse.gov. Retrieved 2015-10-30.
  8. WHO AMR newsletter 2016
  9. “WHO’s first global report on antibiotic resistance reveals serious, worldwide threat to public health” Retrieved 2014-05-02